- Death by A Thousand Cuts: Islam is the Way, Coming to DC!
- Outlaw blogging?
- UK: Church of England School Bans Girl From Wearing Crucifix….
- Unreal: Human Rights Watch Hold Fundraiser in Wahhabi Kingdom, Highlight Their Anti-Israel Agenda….
Well done, good and faithful servant, say the Hamas-linked unindicted co-conspirators to Obama for hisÂ disastrous Cairo speech. Will he refuse their gift of this Koran, in light of their unindicted co-conspirator status, theirÂ refusalÂ toÂ denounceHamas and Hizballah as terrorist groups, theÂ jihad terror convictions of several of their former officials, and theÂ Islamic supremacist statements made by some of their other officials? What do you think?
“A Thank You, and a Koran, for Obama,” by Andrea Fuller for theÂ New York Times, June 30 (thanks to JW):
President Obama will soon receive a thank-you gift for his speech to the Muslim world in Cairo. Inspired by the address, in which Mr. Obama quoted the Koran, the Council on American-Islamic Relations plans to distribute 100,000 copies of the Koran to national, state and local leaders.The council’s national executive director, Nihad Awad, said at a news conference in Washington today that the speech, in which Mr. Obama called for the end to mutual suspicion between Americans and Muslims, was “inspiring” and “historic.”
The council is soliciting donations to pay for the books; at the national convention of the Islamic Society of North America on July 5, the name of one donor will be chosen as sponsor of the Koran that will be sent to Mr. Obama.
In a public opinion survey done by the council, almost 60 percent of Americans said they were “not very knowledgeable” or “not at all knowledgeable” about Islam. Mr. Awad said that the organization hopes to educate Americans about Islam to combat prejudice.
I’m all for that, and hereby volunteer my services to help in this great effort. My bookÂ The Complete Infidel’s Guide to the KoranÂ will be out this fall, so Mr. Awad can’t say I’m not doing my part!
The Muslim Brotherhood “Project”
Â The radical Islamist group’s plan to conquer the West â€“ and the world.
If that’s what you might think, you would be wrong.
In fact, such a document was recovered in a raid by Swiss authorities in November 2001, two months after the horror of 9/11. Since that time information about this document, known in counterterrorism circles asÂ “The Project”, and discussion regarding its content has been limited to the top-secret world of Western intelligence communities. Only through the work of an intrepid Swiss journalist, Sylvain Besson ofÂ Le Temps, and his book published in October 2005 in France,Â La conquÃªte de l’Occident: Le projet secret des IslamistesÂ (The Conquest of the West: The Islamists’ Secret Project), has information regardingÂ The ProjectÂ finally been made public. One Western official cited by Besson has describedÂ The ProjectÂ asÂ “a totalitarian ideology of infiltration which represents, in the end, the greatest danger for European societies.”
Now FrontPage readers will be the first to be able to read the complete English translation ofÂ The Project.
What Western intelligence authorities know aboutÂ The ProjectÂ begins with the raid of a luxurious villa inCampione,Â SwitzerlandÂ onÂ November 7, 2001. The target of the raid was Youssef Nada, director of the Al-Taqwa Bank of Lugano, who has had active association with the Muslim Brotherhood for more than 50 years and who admitted to being one of the organization’s international leaders. The Muslim Brotherhood, regarded as the oldest and one of the most important Islamist movements in the world, was founded by Hasan al-Banna in 1928 and dedicated to the credo,Â “Allah is our objective. The Prophet is our leader. Qur’an is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope.”
The raid was conducted by Swiss law enforcement at the request of the White House in the initial crackdown on terrorist finances in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. US and Swiss investigators had been looking at Al-Taqwa’s involvement in money laundering and funding a wide range of Islamic terrorist groups, including Al-Qaeda, HAMAS (the Palestinian affiliate of the Muslim Brotherhood), the Algerian GIA, and the Tunisian Ennahdah.
Included in the documents seized during the raid of Nada’s Swiss villa was a 14-page plan written in Arabic and dated December 1, 1982, which outlines a 12-point strategy toÂ “establish an Islamic government on earth”Â â€“ identified asÂ The Project. According to testimony given to Swiss authorities by Nada, the unsigned document was prepared by “Islamic researchers” associated with the Muslim Brotherhood.
What makesÂ The ProjectÂ so different from the standard “Death of America! Death toÂ Israel!” and “Establish the global caliphate!” Islamist rhetoric is that it represents a flexible, multi-phased, long-term approach to the “cultural invasion” of the West. Calling for the utilization of various tactics, ranging from immigration, infiltration, surveillance, propaganda, protest, deception, political legitimacy and terrorism,Â The ProjectÂ has served for more than two decades as the Muslim Brotherhood “master plan”. As can be seen in a number of examples throughout Europe â€“ including the political recognition of parallel Islamist government organizations in Sweden, the recent “cartoon” jihad in Denmark, the Parisian car-burningÂ intifadaÂ last November, and the 7/7 terrorist attacks in London â€“ the plan outlined inÂ The ProjectÂ has been overwhelmingly successful.
Rather than focusing on terrorism as the sole method of group action, as is the case with Al-Qaeda, in perfect postmodern fashion the use of terror falls into a multiplicity of options available to progressively infiltrate, confront, and eventually establish Islamic domination over the West. The following tactics and techniques are among the many recommendations made inÂ The Project:
- Networking and coordinating actions between likeminded Islamist organizations;
- AvoidingÂ openÂ alliances with known terrorist organizations and individuals to maintain the appearance of “moderation”;
- Infiltrating and taking over existing Muslim organizations to realign them towards the Muslim Brotherhood’s collective goals;
- Using deception to mask the intended goals of Islamist actions, as long as it doesn’t conflict withÂ shari’alaw;
- Avoiding social conflicts with Westerners locally, nationally or globally, that might damage the long-term ability to expand the Islamist powerbase in the West or provoke a lash back against Muslims;
- Establishing financial networks to fund the work of conversion of the West, including the support of full-time administrators and workers;
- Conducting surveillance, obtaining data, and establishing collection and data storage capabilities;
- Putting into place a watchdog system for monitoring Western media to warn Muslims of “international plots fomented against them”;
- Cultivating an Islamist intellectual community, including the establishment of think-tanks and advocacy groups, and publishing “academic” studies, to legitimize Islamist positions and to chronicle the history of Islamist movements;
- Developing a comprehensive 100-year plan to advance Islamist ideology throughout the world;
- Balancing international objectives with local flexibility;
- Building extensive social networks of schools, hospitals and charitable organizations dedicated to Islamist ideals so that contact with the movement for Muslims in the West is constant;
- Involving ideologically committed Muslims in democratically-elected institutions on all levels in the West, including government, NGOs, private organizations and labor unions;
- Instrumentally using existing Western institutions until they can be converted and put into service of Islam;
- Drafting Islamic constitutions, laws and policies for eventual implementation;
- Avoiding conflict within the Islamist movements on all levels, including the development of processes for conflict resolution;
- Instituting alliances with Western “progressive” organizations that share similar goals;
- Creating autonomous “security forces” to protect Muslims in the West;
- Inflaming violence and keeping Muslims living in the West “in aÂ jihadÂ frame of mind”;
- SupportingÂ jihadÂ movements across the Muslim world through preaching, propaganda, personnel, funding, and technical and operational support;
- Making the Palestinian cause a global wedge issue for Muslims;
- Adopting the total liberation ofÂ PalestineÂ fromÂ IsraelÂ and the creation of an Islamic state as a keystone in the plan for global Islamic domination;
- Instigating a constant campaign to incite hatred by Muslims against Jews and rejecting any discussions of conciliation or coexistence with them;
- Actively creatingÂ jihadÂ terror cells withinÂ Palestine;
- Linking the terrorist activities inÂ PalestineÂ with the global terror movement;
- Collecting sufficient funds to indefinitely perpetuate and support jihad around the world;
In readingÂ The Project, it should be kept in mind that it was drafted in 1982 when current tensions and terrorist activities in theÂ Middle EastÂ were still very nascent. In many respects,Â The ProjectÂ is extremely prescient for outlining the bulk of Islamist action, whether by “moderate” Islamist organizations or outright terror groups, over the past two decades.
At present, most of what is publicly known aboutÂ The ProjectÂ is the result of Sylvain Besson’s investigative work, including his book and a related article published last October in the Swiss daily,Â Le Temps,Â L’islamisme Ã la conquÃªte du mondeÂ (Islamism and the Conquest of the World), profiling his book, which is only available in a French-language edition. At least one Egyptian newspaper,Â Al-Mussawar, published the entire Arabic text ofThe ProjectÂ last November.Â Â
In the English-language press, the attention paid to Besson’s revelation ofÂ The ProjectÂ has been almost non-existent. The only mention found in a mainstream media publication in theÂ USÂ has been as a secondary item in an article in theÂ Weekly StandardÂ (February 20, 2006) by Olivier Guitta,Â The Cartoon Jihad.Â The most extensive commentary onÂ The ProjectÂ has been by an American researcher and journalist living inÂ London, Scott Burgess, who has posted his analysis of the document on his blog,Â The Daily Ablution. Along with his commentary, an English translation of the French text ofÂ The ProjectÂ was serialized in December (PartsÂ I,Â II,Â III,Â IV,Â V,Conclusion). The complete English translation prepared by Mr. Burgess is presented in its entirety here with his permission.
The lack of public discussion aboutÂ The ProjectÂ notwithstanding, the document and the plan it outlines has been the subject of considerable discussion amongst the Western intelligence agencies. OneÂ USÂ counterterrorism official who spoke with Besson aboutÂ The Project, and who is cited in Guitta’sÂ Weekly StandardÂ article, is current White House terrorism czar, Juan Zarate. CallingÂ The ProjectÂ a Muslim Brotherhood master plan for “spreading their political ideology,” Zarate expressed concerns to Besson because “the Muslim Brotherhood is a group that worries us not because it deals with philosophical or ideological ideas but because it defends the use of violence against civilians.”
One renowned international scholar of Islamist movements who also spoke with Besson, Reuven Paz, talked aboutÂ The ProjectÂ in its historical context:
The Project was part of the charter of the international organization of the Muslim Brotherhood, which was official established on July 29, 1982. It reflects a vast plan which was revived in the 1960s, with the immigration of Brotherhood intellectuals, principally Syrian and Egyptians, intoÂ Europe.
As Paz notes,Â The ProjectÂ was drafted by theÂ Muslim BrotherhoodÂ as part of its rechartering process in 1982, a time that marks an upswing in its organizational expansion internationally, as well as a turning point in the alternating periods of repression and toleration by the Egyptian government. In 1952, the organization played a critical support role to the Free Officers Movement led by Gamal Abdul Nasser, which overthrew King Faruq, but quickly fell out of favor with the new revolutionary regime because ofÂ Nasser’s refusal to follow the Muslim Brotherhood’s call to institute an ideologically committed Islamic state. At various times since the July Revolution in 1952, the Brotherhood has regularly been banned and its leaders killed and imprisoned by Egyptian authorities.
Since it was rechartered in 1982, the Muslim Brotherhood has spread its network across theÂ Middle East,Europe, and evenÂ America. At home inÂ Egypt, parliamentary elections in 2005 saw the Muslim Brotherhood winning 20 percent of the available legislative seats, comprising the largest opposition party block. Its Palestinian affiliate, known to the world as HAMAS, recently gained control of the Palestinian Authority after elections secured for them 74 of 132 seats in the Palestinian Legislative Council. Its Syrian branch has historically been the largest organized group opposing the Assad regime, and the organization also has affiliates inÂ Jordan,Â Sudan, andÂ Iraq. In theÂ US, the Muslim Brotherhood is primarily represented by the Muslim American Society (MAS).
Since its formation, the Muslim Brotherhood has advocated the use of terrorism as a means of advancing its agenda of global Islamic domination. But as the largest popular radical movement in the Islamic world, it has attracted many leading Islamist intellectuals. Included among this group of Muslim Brotherhood intellectuals is Youssef Qaradawi, an Egyptian-born, Qatar-based Islamist cleric.
As one of the leading Muslim Brotherhood spiritual figures and radical Islamic preachers (who has his own weekly program on Al-Jazeera), Qaradawi has been one of the leading apologists of suicide bombings inÂ Israeland terrorism against Western interests in theÂ Middle East. Both Sylvain Besson and Scott Burgess provide extensive comparisons between Qaradawi’s publication,Â Priorities of the Islamic Movement in the Coming Phase, published in 1990, andÂ The Project, which predates Qaradawi’sÂ PrioritiesÂ by eight years. They note the striking similarities in the language used and the plans and methods both documents advocate. It is speculated thatÂ The ProjectÂ was either used by Qaradawi as a template for his own work, or that he had a hand in its drafting in 1982. Perhaps coincidentally, Qaradawi was the fourth largest shareholder in the Al-Taqwa Bank of Lugano, the director of which, Youssef Nada, was the individual in whose possessionÂ The ProjectÂ was found. Since 1999, Qaradawi has been banned from entering theÂ USÂ as a result of his connections to terrorist organizations and his outspoken advocacy of terrorism.
For those who have readÂ The Project, what is most troubling is not that Islamists have developed a plan for global dominance; it has been assumed by experts that Islamist organizations and terrorist groups have been operating off an agreed-upon set of general principles, networks and methodology. What is startling is how effectively the Islamist plan for conquest outlined inÂ The ProjectÂ has been implemented by Muslims in the West for more than two decades. Equally troubling is the ideology that lies behind the plan: inciting hatred and violence against Jewish populations around the world; the deliberate co-opting and subversion of Western public and private institutions; its recommendation of a policy of deliberate escalating confrontation by Muslims living in the West against their neighbors and fellow-citizens; the acceptance of terrorism as a legitimate option for achieving their ends and the inevitable reality ofÂ jihadÂ against non-Muslims; and its ultimate goal of forcibly instituting the Islamic rule of the caliphate byÂ shari’aÂ in the West, and eventually the whole world.
If the experience over the past quarter of a century seen in Europe and the US is any indication, the “Islamic researchers” who draftedÂ The ProjectÂ more than two decades ago must be pleased to see their long-term plan to conquer the West and to see the Green flag of Islam raised over its citizens realized so rapidly, efficiently and completely. If Islamists are equally successful in the years to come, Westerners ought to enjoy their personal and political freedoms while they last.
The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) says jump, and BO says,Â how high, master? Obama had the OIC head, Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, at the White House, where he “urged the U.S. to quickly appoint an envoy to the Islamic bloc” — which prompted BHO to create “a new office that is responsible forÂ outreachÂ with Muslims around the world”.
In keeping with instituting Obama’sÂ US MUSLIM ENGAGEMENT, a charter of dhimmitude, we are to be conditioned to respect Muslim immigrants and accept their culture. President Hussein is more than comfortable with this deal with the devil as he seeks to institute an Islamo-Christian ethic, destroying the very foundation of this great country. Never mind that Muslims go after and annihilate the Christians in every country they finally dominate. This is of no import.
America only has to look to Europe to see the devastating consequences of what is proposed in theÂ implementation of the US Muslim Engagement.Â
Â Since taking office Obama has focused on three things – the transformation of our capitalistic economy to a form of socialist statist fascism, the abdication of American sovereignty to a trans-nationalism (one world-er) and the advancement of the worldwide domination of Islam, the ultimate goal of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). There is conspiracy theory and conspiracy fact – the global jihad is conspiracy fact. And the OIC is behind it.
Obama invited the “secretary general” to the White House on the Islamic leg of his apology tour of Europe. Obama refused Sarkozy’s offer to visit Normandy, choosing instead to tour the mosques of Turkey and attend the second forum of the OIC arm, the “alliance of civilizations” (AoC).
The Secretary General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, reconnoitered with Obama during the official reception of the AoCÂ given by the Turkish Prime Minister, Mr. Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (who famously said that “there is no moderate Islam” just days before Barack Hussein’s visit). ObamaÂ reiterated to the Secretary General the willingness and readinessÂ of the US Administration to explore areas of cooperation with the Organization of the Islamic Conference.
New U.S. Special Representative Announced for Muslim Outreach
(CNSNews.com)Â â€“ Buoyed by the presence in the White House of a president who wants to prioritize relations with the world’s Muslims,Â the head of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) visited both Washington and Brussels this week, and urged the U.S. to quickly appoint an envoy to the Islamic bloc.
OIC secretary-general Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu was in Washington on Tuesday when the State Department, in an internal memo, announced that it has selected a “special representative to Muslim communities.”
The department chose not to announce the move publicly, but State Department spokesman Ian Kelly on Thursday acknowledged that Farah Pandith has been chosen for the position. Pandith, a Muslim of Kashmiri origin, served as “senior advisor for Muslim engagement to the assistant secretary for European and Eurasian affairs” in the Bush administration.
hsanoglu told the Turkish Anadolu state news agency this week that he had told Clinton that the U.S. should immediately appoint a special envoy for its relations with the Islamic world.
The two were scheduled to have met, but the event was cancelled because of Clinton’s recent elbow fracture and surgery.
Instead they held a “comprehensive” telephone conversation and “exchanged views as to the ways and means of furthering the engagement between the OIC and the U.S. in the coming period,” the OIC said in a statement.
From Washington, Ihsanoglu went to Brussels where he announced plans to open a representative office to the European Union, with a key function of combating “Islamophobia.”
The OIC, a 57-member bloc of Muslim majority states that wields increasing clout at the United Nations, already has permanent missions in the U.N. cities of New York and Geneva, and “OIC groups” in Washington, Vienna and Paris.
Headquartered in the Saudi city of Jeddah, the OIC has existed for 40 years, but in recent times has become much more visible in the West, largely as a result of its controversial
It has steered more than a dozen resolutions on the subject through the U.N.Â Opponents of the drive, including religious freedom and free speech advocates, see it as an attempt to shield Islam and Islamic practices from criticism.
Ihsanoglu, a Turk, told the Turkish newspaperÂ Today’s ZamanÂ thatÂ “fighting anti-Islam propaganda” will be among the main aims of the office in Brussels.
The paper noted that major incidents considered to be “Islamophobic” had occurred in Europe, citing the furor over Danish newspaper cartoons satirizing Mohammed.
While in Brussels, Ihsanoglu met the E.U.’s external relations commissioner, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, and said they discussedObama’s speech in Cairo. Ihsanoglu had been in the audience when the president spoke.
“Obama’s speech was historic and did not resemble any other speeches in the past,” he told the Anadolu agency on Wednesday. “There has never been a speech delivered to the Muslims that was so constructive and positive as Obama’s speech.”
While in the U.S. this week, Ihsanoglu met with former Secretary of State MadeleineÂ Albright, a member of a “leadership group”Â driving the U.S.-Muslim Engagement Project and a strong backer of Obama’s outreach.
In April,Â Albright was quoted by the Voice of America as telling a meeting of OIC ambassadors that she had no doubt Islamic countries could be democracies.
“Actually, in my study of religions, in many waysÂ Islam is maybe the most democratic religionÂ because there is nobody between you and God. So I do not think that is something that can be used as reason not to have Muslim democracies.”
Madeline Albright’s impossibly stupid remark reflects an illogical, frightening dhimmitude at the “leadership level”. How does one look at an Islamic country and make a statement like that?
Where’s Muslim outreach to the West — where is the self criticism? It’s all their way or the highway.
Flemming Rose, courageous publisher of the Danish Cartoons,Â spoke out against the malevolent objectives of the Organization of the Islamic Conference. Regular Atlas readers are very aware of the dastardly aims of the OIC and how they have managed to infect and infiltrate the EU, the UN, and now the White House.
Flemming Rose, editor ofÂ Jyllands-Posten, Denmark’s largest-circulation newspaper, is visiting Israel under the auspices of the Hebrew University’s Shasha Center for Strategic Studies, headed by former Mossad director Efraim Halevy. He’s here to lecture on how nations need to find the right balance between religious sensitivities and freedom of expression.Â
Rose says the OIC is trying to use Durban II to rewrite the rules of human rights and international law in a way that undermines the values of liberty enshrined in the Western canon – including the US Bill of Rights, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights.Â
It’s all part of an ongoing Muslim campaign that has been making significant strides,Â says Rose.
Bat Yeor wrote of the OIC:
The OIC is a unique organization â€” one that has no equivalent in the world. It unites the religious, economic, military, and political strength of 56 states. By contrast, the European Union represents half as many states and is a secular body only, and the Vatican â€” which speaks for the world’s 1.1 billion Catholics â€” is devoid of any political power. Many Muslims in the West resist the OIC’s tutelage and oppose its efforts to supplant Western law with sharia. But the OIC’s resources are formidable.Â
The OIC regularlyÂ reiterates its commitments to protecting the political, historical, religious, and human rights of Muslims in non-OIC states, especially Muslims who form the majority in specific regions of non-Muslim countries â€” such as the southern Philippines, southern Thailand, and western Thrace in Greece â€” as well as Muslims in places like the Balkans, the Caucasus, Myanmar, India, and China.Â The OIC supports Hamas and the Palestinians in their struggle to destroy Israel, as well as the Muslim fight for “legitimate self-determination” in “Indian-occupied Jammu and Kashmir.” It has condemned the “continual Armenian aggression against Azerbaijan,” and it expresses its full solidarity with “the just cause of the Muslim Turkish people of Cyprus” and with Sudanese President Omar Hassan Al-Bashir, whom many hold responsible for encouraging the massacres in Darfur. The seat of the OIC is in Jeddah, but the organization regards that location as temporary: Its headquarters will be transferred to al-Kods (Islamized Jerusalem) when that city has been “liberated” from Israeli control.Â
In its efforts toÂ defend the “true image” of Islam and combat its defamation, the organizationÂ has requested the UN and the Western countries to punish “Islamophobia” and blasphemy. Among the manifestations of Islamophobia, in the OIC’s view, are European opposition to illegal immigration, anti-terrorist measures, criticism of multiculturalism, and indeed any efforts to defend Western cultural and national identities. The OIC has massive funding from oil sources, which it lavishly spends on the Western media and academia and in countless “dialogues.” It influences Western policy, laws, and even textbooks through pressures brought by Muslim immigrants and by the Western nations’ own leftist parties. Hence, we have seen Kristallnacht-like incitements of hate and murder against European Jews and Israel conducted with impunity in the cities of Europe â€” where respect for human rights is supposed to be one of the highest values.Â
The Muslim claim, that the Koran “never changed” in 1200 years, is bollocks:
It is a lie that the Qur’an is unchanged. there were many variants when Caliph Uthman set out to put all those supposed “revelations” given to Mohammed (when he was having epileptic fits) into one volume. Uthman solved the problem by having all variants burned. Many verses were lost too when those who’d memorised them died in battle. a scribe who questioned the “Satanic verses” wherein Allah said it was ok to worship Allah’s daughters (Al-At, Man- At and Al-uzzah) was told by Mohammed to leave them out because satan must have dictated them to him. Another scribe quit in disgust when Mohammned said he could include something he’d made up himself and alter other verses at whim.
If Allah ALONE protects his book then why do Muslims bother protesting/killing? As for variant versions of Quran, the list following is a snippet.Â
Conflicting readings on the text of the Quran as Arthur Jeffery has demonstrated in his book, Material for the History of the Text of the Quran” (New York, Russell F. Moore, 1952).Â
Mentions Variant readings in the Koran: Dashti, 23 Years, p. 28Â
Mentions Variant readings in the Koran: Mandudi, Meaning of the Quran, pp. 17-18Â
Mentions Variant readings in the Koran: McClintock and Strong, Cyclopedia, V152).Â
“[the Koran] had a large number of variants, not always trifling in significance” (Islam, p. 189).Â
“It is interesting to note that in scholarly Muslim journals, there is beginning to be a grudging acknowledgment of the fact that there are variant and conflicting readings on the text of the Quran” (One example would be Saleh al-Wahaihu, “A Study of Seven Quranic Variants,” International Journal of Islamic and Arabic Studies, Vol. V (1989), #2, pp. 1-57).Â
“The Muslin accounts of the history of the Quran texts are a mass of confusion, contradiction and inconsistencies” (Burton, Collection, p. 231).Â
“Abdollah renounced Islam on the ground that the revelations, if from God, could not be changed at the prompting of a scribe such as he. After his apostasy he went to Mecca and joined the Qorayshites” (Dashti, 23 Years, p. 98).Â
“There being some passages in the Quran which are contradictory, the Muhammadan doctors obviate any objection from thence by the doctrine of abrogation; for they say that God in the Quran commanded several things which were for good reasons afterwards revoked and abrogated” (E. Wherry, A Comprehensive Commentary on the Qurun, p. 110).Â
“It is to us astounding how so compromising a procedure can have been permitted to be introduced into the system by friends and foes (Canon Sell in his work, Historical Development of the Qura, Madras: Diocesan Press, 1923, pp. 36-37).Â
“When Muhammad died there existed no singular codex of the sacred text” (Caesar Farah, Islam: Beliefs and Observations, New York; Barrons, 1987, p. 28).Â
“One thing only is certain and is openly recognized by tradition, namely, that there was not in existence any collection of revelations in the final form, because, as long as he was alive, new revelations were being added to the earlier ones” (The Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam p. 271).