Clit-Cutting (FGM) "Obligatory" in Islam!

Little girl in Indonesia after having clitoris removed (30 years ago almost unheard of, now common, thanks to Islam….)

The Baron from the Gates of Vienna did his own research and came up with this:

To Cut or Not to Cut?

Last night, when writing about the Algerian mufti and his reaction to proposed restrictions on wife-beating, I mentioned in passing that female genital mutilation enjoys scriptural validation under Islam. In the comments, Anti-Islamist asked for a specific citation to support my assertion:

…i humbly must ask the Baron: where in the Koran or the Hadiths are these nicities imposed?

I should be very much obliged to you for giving me an exhaustiv answer. Thank you!

By then it was quite late, and I was too tired to do more than make a quick search. As a result I listed only a weak hadith from Abu Dawud about female circumcision in my response.

However, it’s important to remember that although Islamic law relies on the Koran and the hadith for its ultimate authority, there are other sources of authoritative instruction under the fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). The actual details of sharia are codified in the four major schools of Islamic law (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi, and Hanbali). The Reliance of the Traveller (’Umdat al-Salik), by Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, is a Shafiite law manual, and is considered one of the best and most reliable authorities on the specifics of sharia. As the documents in the preface to Nuh Ha Mim Keller’s translation attest, his version is recognized as an officially approved statement in English of the doctrines of Islamic law, as certified by Al-Azhar University and the governments of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria.

Unfortunately, a complete Reliance of the Traveller is all but impossible to find online. So today, after a good night’s sleep, I got out my copy of ’Umdat al-Salikand looked up the relevant section on circumcision.

Let’s see what Al-Misri has to say in Book E, “Purification”, Section e4.0, “The Body”:
– – -  – – – – –

e4.3     Circumcision is obligatory (O: for both men and women. For men it consists of removing the prepuce from the penis, and for women, removing the prepuce (Ar. bazr) of the clitoris (n: not the clitoris itself, as some mistakenly assert). (A: Hanbalis hold that circumcision of women is not obligatory but sunna, while Hanafis consider it a mere courtesy to the husband.)

There are four doctrinal schools of Sunni Islamic law: the Hanafi, the Maliki, the Shafi, and the Hanbali. In this passage al-Misri names all four schools.

Does he seem to name only two of schools? A closer inspection tells us more.

This is a Shafiite manual, and it explains Shafiite rules. It makes no exception for the Malikis, so the stated rule — circumcision is obligatory — applies to bothShafi and Maliki. The first exception is for the Hanbalis, who hold that circumcision of women is not obligatory, but recommended. And finally it acknowledges that the Hanafis consider it a mere courtesy to the husband.

So now what does this tell us? All of Sunni Islam says that female circumcision is a good thing. And two of those schools actually say it is mandatory.

As a side note, a contact who is a scholar of Arabic tells me that the Arabic version of this passage gives instructions to cut the whole thing out, and not just the prepuce — which confirms what most of us thought.

I hope this gives a more complete and comprehensive answer to the reader’s question.

Baron Bodissey didn’t  need to go through pains to do his own research: here on Winds of Jihad we have already done it a while ago, and came up with the same result……. Now look out for Mohammedan drones who will pop up and tell us that its got nothing to do with Islam, that it is cultural, that “other religions do it too”, especially the Hottentots and the one legged pygmies, even Eskimos do it and blah blah…. you know the drill.

Congrats to Baron Bodissey for getting a mention on the OIC Discovery Channel!

You have arrived, Baron. Congrats!

 

The OIC took notice of you. You are a fearsome enemy of Islam. Hope you got a panic room…..

Al-Misri on Circumcision

Baron Bodissey

I reported briefly yesterday on the sharia requirement for female circumcision, as mandated by Reliance of the Traveller, which is the authoritative law manual under the Shafiite school of Islamic law. In the comments section on the post, Inalienable Rights requested that I scan the page in question and post it so that everyone could have a look.

I’m more than happy to comply, but a first brief introduction is in order. We (that is, people who resist the Great Jihad) are routinely accused of distorting Islamic doctrine, quoting material out of context, relying on “extremist” sources that do not represent “true Islam”, etc. I’ll present the material here as if I were establishing an evidentiary chain in a court of law, citing factual material from creditable sources so as to present a case that could stand up before a judge and a jury.

But this process represents Western standards of logic and legality. None of it will stop me from being accused of “defaming Islam”, because anything I do — even quoting authoritative sources on Islamic law — is defined as “defamation” under sharia if it does not serve to further Islam.

That’s why the kuffar may be legitimately shouted down for quoting the Koran, while Muslims may do the same freely. This is not illogical, and there’s no contradiction: it makes complete sense, once you understand the basic premises of Islamic doctrine.

*   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *
Reliance of the TravellerThe source I cite here is ’Umdat al-salik wa ’uddat al-nasik, or The reliance of the traveller and tools of the worshipper. It is commonly referred to as Reliance of the Traveller when cited in English.

According to the title page, my copy is the Revised Edition (published 1991, revised 1994) and is “The Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law ’Umdat al-Salik by Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (d. 769/1368) in Arabic with Facing English Text, Commentary, and Appendices”, edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller. The publisher is listed as amana publications in Beltsville, Maryland.

Why do I consider this an authoritative source on Sunni Islamic law?

Because it is certified as such by Al-Azhar University in Cairo. There is no higher authority on Sunni Islamic doctrine than Al-Azhar; it is the closest equivalent to the Vatican that can be found in Islam.

On page xx of the “Documents” preface, we find this encomium (the Arabic version, including official stamps and seals, is on the facing page xxi):
– – - – – – – – –

[CERTIFICATION OF AL-AZHAR]

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST MERCIFUL AND COMPASSIONATE

al-Azhar
Islamic Research Academy
General Department for Research, Writing, and Translation

Mr. Nuh Ha Mim Keller
Amman, Jordan

Peace be upon you, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings.

To commence: In response to the request you have submitted concerning the examination of the English translation of the book ’Umdat al-salik wa ’uddat al-nasik by Ahmad ibn Naqib in the Shafi’i school of jurisprudence, together with appendices by Islamic scholars on matters of Islamic law, tenets of faith, and personal ethics and character: we certify that the above-mentioned translation corresponds to the Arabic original and conforms to the practice and faith of the orthodox Sunni Community (Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama’a). There is no objection to printing it and circulating it.

The stamping of the pages of the above-mentioned work with the seal of the department has been completed.

May Allah give you success in serving Sacred Knowledge and the religion. Peace be upon you, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings.

Composed on 26 Rajah 1411 A.H./11 February 1991 A.D.

General Director of Research, Writing, and Translation
Fath Allah Ya Sin Jazar [signed]

Muhammad ’Umar Muhammad ’Umar [signed]

Seal of al-Azhar [stamped] General Department for Research, Writing, and Translation

This establishes the unassailable credentials of Nuh Ha Mim Keller’s translation of ’Umdat al-Salik.

In Book E “Purification”, section e4.0 “The Body”, we find on page 59 the following text:

Reliance, e4.3
This is the original Arabic, for those of our readers who read the language and can translate it for themselves. For everyone else, below is an image of the English side-by-side with the Arabic. I include e4.4 just to give you an idea of the type of material covered by Book E:

Reliance, e4.3 and e4.4
And here is the same text after it has been processed through the OCR:

e4.3 Circumcision is obligatory (O: for both men and women. For men it consists of removing the prepuce from the penis, and for women, removing the prepuce (Ar. bazr) of the clitoris (n: not the clitoris itself, as some mistakenly assert). (A: Hanbalis hold that circumcision of women is not obligatory but sunna, while Hanafis consider it a mere courtesy to the husband.)

As I mentioned yesterday, this section demonstrates that all four schools of Sunni law consider female circumcision a good thing, and two of them list it as mandatory.

I also mentioned that the original Arabic is more stringent than the English version, in that it specifies excising the entire clitoris rather than just the prepuce. I find further backing for this assertion in the Australian Islamist Monitor, which reports:

Reliance of the Traveller, a classical manual of Islamic sacred law in Arabic with facing English text, commentary and appendices edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller (1994) re ‘circumcision’ we find the Arabic actually says –

“Circumcision is obligatory (for every male and female) by cutting off the piece of skin on the glans of the penis of the male, but circumcision of the female is by cutting out the clitoris (this is called HufaaD). “ (p59) (Shafi’I jurisprudence)

(Note the English version is falsely translated as ‘prepuce ‘ of the clitoris!!)

The Arabic word bazr does not mean “prepuce of the clitoris”, it means the clitoris itself (cf. the entry in the Arabic-English Dictionary). The deceptive translation by Nuh Hah Mim Keller, made for Western consumption, obscures the Shafi’i law, given by ’Umdat al-Salik, that circumcision of girls by excision of the clitoris is mandatory. This particular form of female circumcision is widely practiced in Egypt, where the Shafi’i school of Sunni law is followed. Note a comment by Sheikh ‘Abd al-Wakil Durubi in the English ‘version’ notes “Hanbalis hold that circumcision of women is not obligatory but sunna, while Hanafis consider it a mere courtesy to the husband.” (answering-Islam.org)

This is supported by several hadiths eg

Abu-Dawud Book 41, No. 5251: Narrated Umm Atiyyah al-Ansariyyah: A woman used to perform circumcision in Medina. The prophet (peace be upon him) said to her: Do not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband.

(Note: The powerful Mohammad did NOT stop the procedure yet he did stop the Arab practise of adoption when he wished to marry his adopted son’s wife Zainab, regarded as incest by the Arabs because adopted sons were held as sons!)

Anyone who reads Arabic is invited to check the image posted above against what AIM says here, and see if you agree with it.

With this, the sharia justification (and, under Shafi, requirement) for radical female circumcision is now clearly and fully demonstrated, and constitutes a “fact in evidence”.

Case closed.

Update:

Here’s an interesting discourse from the Sunni Forum:

Muslim:


In other news:

Inhofe slams Gore on climate ‘hoax’

Lockerbie killer lives (quite well, really!)


19 thoughts on “Clit-Cutting (FGM) "Obligatory" in Islam!”

  1. Bad News,It means that Eleysha clitoris was cut SNIP …..What do you want ! She wants become a good muslima….No Fun in Islam and No Clit too.

  2. Sheik, nice work. A couple of comments. You say that the omission of Maliki demonstrates that Maliki school considers FGM obligatory. But “demonstrate” is too strong. Another possibility is that the author of Reliance omitted Maliki for some other reason, of which several are possible. I’d say that the omission suggests, perhaps even strongly suggests, that FGM is obligatory for Malikis. But not “demonstrates.”

    I’d also add that I’m now reading an outstanding book, The Third Choice: Islam, Dhimmitude, and Freedom, by Mark Durie, and in that book, Durie claims that the regions that practice FGM all have Shaaf’i in common. Durie claims that it’s only obligatory for Shaafi, while for the other schools it’s permissible. He notes the same phony translation you note in Reliance, of the word bazr. For him, that phony translation is part of a discussion of the subtleties of lawful deception in Islam. I don’t know if he’s wrong about FGM only being obligatory for Shaafi, but what an outstanding book! So clear! So concise! So in-depth yet so accessible, readable, and comprehensive! It should be stocked in Barnes & Noble, but they told me that is a book that has to be ordered. I would not be surprised if the reason they don’t put it on the shelves is that the book is totally un-PC, and covers up nothing — and I mean nothing — about Islam, and yet is rather gentle in tone. I’ve been collecting nightmare hadiths for a long time, and nightmare incidents from the Sira, and from the Qur’an, and they are all in Durie’s book, and then some. This is the best book on this subject I’m aware of. I would say better than any book by Robert Spencer, and I’ve read and admired many of Spencer’s books. Somehow, this book has to get read by everyone.

    1. Thanks traeh!

      Without going deeper into it, what bothers me most is that the practice is spreading. Even in countries like Indonesia, where 30 years ago no one would have thought about subjecting their daughters to mutilation, FGM is now wide spread because of Islam. Also, when I lived there in the seventies there was no headscarf to be seen in all of Java or anywhere else.

      Islam, a work in progress. A progressive disease.

  3. uff! im sick of all these shyookh saying it’s part of islam! seriously??? ohh well how about cutting a whole man’s penis just to make it equal to cutting the clitoris!?? i have a right to be complete and die as Allah created me! just because your my parent doesn’t give you the right to take my right and my feelings about doubting about me growing up and acting like a hoe,but when it comes to my brother, its fine! even if he goes around and have sex! hes a guy! seriously ppl?! i disrespect any imam that says a fatwa about this and he knows that ppl will take it the wrong way :S

  4. am indonesian and am moslems, but this is d first time i hearth that, why must cut the clits? i worked at one of islamic hospital in indonesia n never seeing something like this,

  5. to my knowledge, in Islam, her clitoris is not cut at all but just a little scratch, which is important bleed a little, so do not incorrect in interpreting, you can make people so negative towards us because of your carelessness in interpretation,

  6. Clit-Cutting (FGM) is not “Obligatory” in Islam,we are muslims in Algeria(Malikits) but we don’t pratic this methode on girls because it’s dangerous.It’s diferent on the boys witch we cut only the exterieur part of the prepuce.

  7. No exception for the Malikis, so the stated rule — circumcision is obligatory — applies to both Shafi and Maliki.

    But don’t take my word for it: ask your imam!

  8. I’m sorry. But I cannot even read this whole thing without shaking in disgust and anger. (Not really to the author because I did not full read it so I’m not speaking him/her….unless they believe in clitoris manipulation .The thought of someone messing with me (or anyone of the women *little girls in particular*) down there makes my stomach turn. As well as wanting to put the mother Fuckers who did it in a cage with an enraged chimp…everything on them would be pulled off by chimp hands, sounds like that would be fitting. And if you continue to read expect more violence from me to want to fit their crime.

    I try to be respectful of religions but this is no religious act! Say I’m talking shit or whatever you like, but if you really think that those small girls aren’t crying and screaming to get away from that knife than I hope you’re tortured to death <3

    OH AND “obligatory” WELL I'D RATHER DIE AT BIRTH THAN BE BORN INTO THAT DISGUSTING COUNTY THAT WOULD DO THAT!!!! Drop a bomb please.
    When seeing a girl who looked 14 trying to scramble to get away from that fucking "doctor" and "nurse" made me tear up I feel so bad for her, that it enraged me to write this not caring if people say something back! 'Cause I know the ones that do will be the ones that should be put into a crazy chimp’s cage! INCLUDING YOU NASTY FUCKING WOMEN WHO DO THIS TO LITTLE GIRLS TOO!!! BETTER HOPE KARMA IS KIND.

    ~Yours truly Un-cut clitoris
    oh and for more smart ass remarks: Those men probably want the clit cut so they don't have to do any foreplay… lazy mother fuckers.

  9. Yeah yeah, americans is always talk about humanity and equal gender between men and women, i am touch. But they just arguing. Look at their country, free sex spread everywhere, the church are helpless in forbid that case.
    Even their doing that free sex in open public with a lot of people. How they can explain that? Am hope they still have honor and think about it for a while instead of Liberty that they always told.

  10. I am a muslim and this the first time I learn of FGM. It is outrageous and a crime against women. I just want to add, in most muslim countries it is forbiddin to do this act of inhumanity. The GCC, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon are all muslim countries in which FGM is forbidden and unheared of for the vast majority.
    Besides, having done my research, FGM originated in Affrica way before Islam and it was uncommon to muslim societies until some 30 years back as you say.

    1. “FGM originated in Affrica way before Islam and it was uncommon to muslim societies until some 30 years back as you say.”

      Totally irrelevant and wrong. Read yourself through the links I posted for you.If you do research, do it right.

      Reliance of the Traveller, a classical manual of Islamic sacred law in Arabic with facing English text, commentary and appendices edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller (1994) re ‘circumcision’ we find the Arabic actually says –

      “Circumcision is obligatory (for every male and female) by cutting off the piece of skin on the glans of the penis of the male, but circumcision of the female is by cutting out the clitoris (this is called HufaaD). “ (p59) (Shafi’I jurisprudence)

      (Note the English version is falsely translated as ‘prepuce ‘ of the clitoris!!)

  11. I agree with you that FGM should be fought and ended but I am infuriated that you attribute it to Islam and generalize. Your thoughts are the kind of typical stereotypes against Islam. You cannot ignorantly suggest that FGM is due to Islam just because a few stupid muslim started to think so. Stupid people exist in muslim societies and in other societies as well and the problem is in some muslim societies these idiots somehow become scholars and be followed by a large number of ignorant muslims. Due your research Sheikyermami before attempting to offend one sixth of the world population which you have successfuly achieved by this website. This is neo-racism of “just blame the muslims”.

  12. You could have alternatively attributed FGM to extreemist islamics instead of The whole of Islam.

    1. You are “infuriated” (by me?) that I “attribute it to Islam and generalise.”

      (I don’t)

      95 % of women in Egypt are genitally mutilated because of Islam, not because of me.

      Your thoughts are the kind of typical stereotypes against Islam.

      Hardly.

      You cannot ignorantly suggest that FGM is due to Islam just because a few stupid muslim started to think so

      I’m not suggesting anything. Read the article. Listen to what Muslims say: its the sunnah of the profit.

      Take it up with the Egyptians. Me thinks the ignorant one here is you.

      Female genital mutilation “is part of the Sunna of the Prophet …

      Female Genital Mutilation is Part of the Sunna of the Prophet, Part II

  13. (Quoting Illusive) But they just arguing. Look at their country, free sex spread everywhere, the church are helpless in forbid that case. Even their doing that free sex in open public with a lot of people. How they can explain that? Am hope they still have honor and think about it for a while instead of Liberty that they always told.(Quoting Illusive)

    I guess having multiple wives doesn’t mean free sex with multiple partners? Having sex with more than one woman indicates adultery in marriage as well as having multiple sex partners but its justified if its you right, have you not realized you are no different in regards to religion. Equality isn’t just about the sex, its also about standing on the same ground together with other people regardless of if they are female or male, its quite simple to understand.

    Anyway, as for FGM>

    After watching a biography, studying and talking to women who had the FGM done for my social sciences class, I realized A) its a method to control women and B) it is unsanitary, uneeded, dangerous (to the point of fatal) provides hardship and the women are prone to infection. “X” women require alot of time just to urinate and some had severe infections because the blood from their mentstrual cycles were unable to exit. In other cases some of these women were robbed of a natural childbirth because the birthing canal/vagina was too small.

    How can any parent in their right mind submit their child to such torture? I know as a mother I would rather be an outcast before being an idiot subjugating my daughter to such barbaric act and useless acts. Before anyone say it isn’t wide spread, there is many cases in the UK where Islamic/muslim families had paid for a cutter to come in the country. These families would group together and impose on their daughters during summer vacation to this treatment; worst part this is in the UK so imagine countries where they are viewed as cattle with no rights.

    Im not saying all islamic/muslim people believe and support this, cause I have worked with quite a few respectful muslim people in my lifetime. What Im saying is that things need to change and we need to educate everyone on FGM.

  14. Islam has nothing to do with this crap, you are writing here! here in no such obligation, as circumcision of women! The hadith about it is very poor and not strong at all, when checking the persons, who had told them.

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