Thanks to the Point of no return
Just as the Jews of Iraq have theÂ Farhud,Â the Jews of Fez have a name for their pogrom: theÂ TritlÂ â€“ literally ‘sack’ of Fez. The irony was that theÂ TritlÂ broke out as Jews had finished celebrating theirÂ Mimouna, a convivial end to Passover when they invite their Muslim neighbours into their homes forÂ mouffletaÂ pancakes.
“Look, we even have Jews here!”Â
- How is it that Arab countries can get away with ethnically cleansing their Jewish communities yet reap the PR benefits of restoring Jewish buildings?—Bashar al-Assad announced plans to restore 11 Syrian synagogues Â in a country incapable of assembling a minyan (quorum) of 10 able-bodied Jewish men.
Two weeks after Morocco became a French Protectorate on 30 March 1912, Muslim army recruits, outraged at the takeover of the infidel, mutinied against their French officers. Egged on by women standing on the rooftops, the soldiers are said to have played football with the officers’ decapitated heads and decorated their chests with their victims’ intestines. In no time at all, the cry went up, “To themellah!”
The French having previously confiscated all weapons, the Jews had no means to defend themselves. Looters broke doors down and stole jewellery, furniture, crockery, dishes and clothes. They desecrated synagogues and burnt Torah scrolls. Men, women and children were murdered in cold blood, hurled from roofs, mutilated and raped.
Sultana Elbaz was killed at an upstairs window. She was hit in the chest by a bullet fired by a soldier who had burst into the courtyard of her home. It is said that her baby survived by suckling her blood.
Escaping through a new gate from theÂ mellah, Jews sought sanctuary in theÂ medina, where some Arabs sheltered them. The Sultan Moulay Hafid took many starving Jews into his palace and sent them bread and olives. All the time the refugees remained there, until 28 April, it did not stop raining.
The abiding image of the 1912Â TritlÂ is of Jews sheltering in the sultan’s menagerie. One photo shows the sultan’s lions and tigers in one cage, and Jews crammed cheek by jowl in the adjoining cage. So many Jews streamed into the palace that even the animal cages, the historical accounts suggest, had to be emptied for them. But the Jews had more than a passing familiarity with the beasts: the historianNathan WeinstockÂ writes that as degradedÂ ‘dhimmis’,Â it was the Jews’ chore to feed the royal lions and tigers. He even met a man who knew a man who bore a scar on his face from one of these big cats.
On 19 April, in order to force the rioters away, French soldiers fired rockets and bombs, laying waste to much of theÂ mellah. Jews abandoned theÂ mellah, which was pillaged the next day.
During the three days of violence, 45 Jews were killed, although some estimates are higher. Over 70 were injured. French troops suffered an equal number of casualties*, while almost 1,000 Muslims were killed or wounded. A third of theÂ mellahÂ was destroyed, and 12,000 Jews found themselves homeless.
- The Fez Tritl will be commemorated from 16 to 18 April with a conference at the Ben Zvi Institute and at Bar Ilan University and a lecture at the Centre de Recherche Francais in Jerusalem.
- *The Boston Evening Transcript puts the French toll at 27, including the correspondent of ‘Le Matin’Â (Elder of ZiyonÂ blog)
Today is the 100th anniversary of a particularly gruesome pogrom in Fez, Morocco, as a protest against the French turned into a violent rampage against the Jews who lived in a ghetto there.
From theÂ Boston Evening Transcript:
In the end, some 60 Jews were murdered.
And this was not particularly unusual for Fez. Â There wereÂ pogromsÂ in 1033, and 1276, in 1465 the mellah (ghetto) was almost completely destroyed, and there were pogroms throughout Morocco in 1790 where the Fez Jews were forced out of the city for two years.
This is just a small part of how well Jews were treated in Muslim countries. For the most part better than Europe, but they were always considered to be inferior and apart from the majority population, and when badÂ thingsÂ happened the Jews were the first to be attacked.
UPDATE: See alsoÂ here.