In his book Innocents Abroad, 1869, which established his reputation as a writer, Mark Twain described Syria under the Ottoman Turkish Empire:
“Five thousand Christians…were massacred in Damascus in 1861 by the Turks…
Narrow streets ran blood for several days, and that men, women and children were butchered indiscriminately and left to rot by hundreds all through the Christian quarter…the stench was dreadful.
…All the Christians who could get away fled from the city, and the Mohammedans would not defile their hands by burying the ‘infidel dogs.’
…The thirst for blood extended to the high lands of Hermon and Anti-Lebanon, and in a short time twenty-five thousand more Christians were massacred…”
Mark Twain described Jerusalem under Ottoman Muslim rule:
“Rags, wretchedness, poverty and dirt, those signs and symbols that indicate the presence of Moslem rule.”